Ardashir and his followers believed that it was only by the restoration of the ancient religion that a stable rule could be established and the people made content. Cook, S.A. et al, eds. His father was a vassal king of the Parthians, who ruled ancient Iran. He also rebuilt the city of Seleucia, located just across the river, which had been destroyed by the Romans in 165, renaming it "Veh-Ardashir". Ardashir I (d.ad 240) King of Persia (c.224–41). Their armies clashed at Hormizdeghan, and Artabanus IV was killed. Religion in Iran Manichaeism. Despite these impressive structures, he established his government at the old Arsacid capital of Ctesiphon on the Tigris River. The Sassanids built fire temples and, under royal direction, an (apparently) "orthodox" version of the "Avesta" was compiled by a cleric named Tansār, and it was during the early period that the texts as they exist today were written down (until then these were orally transmitted). The Parthian Empire had consisted of a loose federation of vassal kingdoms under the suzerainty of the Arsacid monarchs. Ardashir made Zoroastrianism the state religion, and he and his priest Tosar are credited with collecting the holy texts and establishinga unified doctrine. Both leaders must have had reason to avoid further campaigning, as Severus returned to Europe in the following year (233) and Ardashir did not renew his attacks for several years, probably focusing his energies in the east.In 237, Ardashir—along with his son and successor Shapur I (241–272)—again invaded Mesopotamia. Ardashir was able to defeat the remaining Parthians and in either 224, 226, or 227 AD had himself crowned as Ardashir I. Ardashir was a vigorous and effective ruler, and much like Augustus in Rome he set a solid foundation for the next few centuries of imperial rule. Around 216 Ardeshir became ruler of Papak's kingdom, which was confined to central Fars. Similarly, the Sassanids traced their heritage to the Temple of Anahita at Staxr, where Ardashir I's grandfather had been a dignitary. Local governors who descended from the ruling family bore the title of "shāh". Fired by this enthusiasm Ardashir led the double movement for the restoration of the ancient Faith of Zoroaster and for the establishment of the pure Aryan form of government in the land. In the western provinces, a Zurvanite doctrine of the religion with Time as the First Principle appears to have competed with the Mazdaen form (as it is known from the Sassanid prototype of the Avesta).In other domestic affairs, Ardashir I maintained his familial base in Fars, erecting such structures as the Ghal'eh Dokhtar and the Palace of Ardashir. Shapur I (r. 240-270 CE), son of Ardashir I, … Continue reading The Zoroastrian Priesthood Elevated by Sassanid State Ardashir was born in the late 2nd century in what is present-day Fars, [ [http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/ardashir%20i%20of%20persia%20-%20early%20years/id/4803164 Ardashir I of Persia: Encyclopedia II - Ardashir I of Persia - Early years ] ] [ [http://persianempire.info/sassanid.htm The Sassanid Empire PersianEmpire.info History of the Persian Empire ] ] then a vassal kingdom of the Parthian Arsacids. Ardashir I receives the symbol of kingship from Ahura Mazda . This story is later confirmed by Ferdowsi's "Shahname". [cite book last = Sykes first = Percy authorlink = Percy Sykes title = History of Iran publisher = Routledge date = 2004 url = http://books.google.com/books?id=KFji0kSxqNMC isbn = 0415326796 pp 394] Ardashir rapidly extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars and gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan, Susiana, and Mesene. The Sassanids built fire temples and, under royal direction, an (apparently) "orthodox" version of the "Avesta" was compiled by a cleric named Tansār, and it was during the early period that the texts as they exist today were written down (until then these were orally transmitted). Furthermore, the Kings of Kushan, Turan, and Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord. Cambridge: University Press, pp 109–111, 118, 120, 126–130. last2 = Gershevitch first2 = Ilya last3 = Ehsan first3 = Yarshster title = The Cambridge History of Iran publisher = Cambridge University Press year = 1993 volume = 3(1) url = http://books.google.com/books?id=Ko_RafMSGLkC isbn = 052120092X pp116-118] After this Artabanus V ordered the ruler of Khuzestan to confront Ardeshir , but he was defeated in battle.cite book last = Azadmehr first = Shahbaz title = History of Iran (تاریخ ایران) publisher = Entesharate Barbod date = 2003 location = Tehran pages = 91-92 isbn =9646381790 ] In 226 Artabanus V invaded Fars to defeat Ardeshir, his rebellious vassal. Hearing of the Roman plans to march on his capital at Ctesiphon, Ardashir left only a token screening force in the north and met the enemy force that was advancing to the south, apparently defeating it in a decisive manner. His move against Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Cappadocia caused the Roman emperor Alexander Severus to campaign against him. Furthermore, the Kings of Kushan, Turan, and Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord. In this battle the Parthian army was completely defeated and Artabanus was killed. According to the hagiographic "Book of the Deeds of Ardashir son of Babak", Ardashir I then went on to capture the western vassal states of the now-defunct Arsacids.Crowned in 226 as the "Šāhān šāh Ērān" "king of kings [of] Iran"cite encyclopedia|last=MacKenzie|first=David Niel|title=Ērān, Ērānšahr|year=1998|volume=8|encyclopedia=Encyclopedia Iranica|publisher=Mazda|location=Costa Mesa|url=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v8f5/v8f545.html] (his consort Adhur-Anahid took the title "Queen of Queens"), Ardashir finally brought the 480 year-old Parthian Empire to an end and began four centuries of Sassanid rule.Over the next few years, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (in modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia. In contrast, Ardashir I established a strong central government by which to rule his dominions. This theory suggests that Sasan married the daughter of Papak after the latter discovers that Sasan is of royal Achaemenid descent. Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck, pp 71–76. Two treatises, The Testament of Ardashir and The Letter of Tosar, are attributed to them. In contrast, Ardashir I established a strong central government by which to rule his dominions. He announced that religion and kingship were brothers and said his rule was the will of God. It seems that the Romans saw fit to attempt a diplomatic solution to the crisis, reminding the Persians of the superiority of Roman arms, but to no avail. Local governors who descended from the ruling family bore the title of "shāh". Reverse: Zoroastrian fire-altar, legend around `` Nura zi Artashatr '' ( `` Fire of son... Later confirmed by Ferdowsi 's `` Shahname '' avesta=law, zend=commentary ]..... Click the link for than... Letter from Ardavan V, and Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord,. 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