The Chinese Huli Jing is analogous in its cultural representation to European fairies. Scholars disagree as to whether the fox spirit arose sui generis in China, Japan, and Korea as unique cultural symbols within each folk corpus, or whether there was significant symbolic cross-fertilization, but the amorous yearning of fox spirits are a central feature of all three cultural traditions. The fox is a curious mythological figure, almost universally representing sexual desire, cunning, and trickery, and while fox status in relation to humans ranges from benign to malevolent, Far Eastern myths of the fox spirit are peculiarly tinged with eroticism. Li refused on the ground that the lot had no house on it. We hope you will grace us with your presence.” Li went to the lot and, to his surprise, discovered a brand new mansion there. With blood dripping from her lips, she then chewed and swallowed the steaming meat. Korea has historically been far more rigid about the status of women, and female sexuality that either Japan or China. Next night, the master sent his only son to solve the mystery. There are several type of kitsune but mostly they are divided into two groups, the Zenko, which were benevolent and associated with the god Inari, and the Yako, which were malicious and mischievous. Write it here to share it with the entire community. This time it formed a mighty blue lake that soon engulfed the fox girl who splashed and thrashed in the water before sinking below the waves. Chinese folk tales tell of fox spirits called huli jing that may have up to nine tails (Kyūbi no Kitsune in Japanese). Next morning he went to the master and told him the story. The dragon, you know, hunkered in the village devouring maidens, heard the townsfolk cry ‘Monster!’ and looked behind him.” 5. She it is who came in the night and ate the horse’s liver.’ His father stared at him with hurt and anger in his eyes. Korea, highly patriarchal to begin, with adopted the Confucian attitudes towards sexuality, and later Christian attitudes. Because he commited the crime of attempted usurpation as well as banditry, Li and his entire family were executed. When a kitsune becomes ol… -Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, “Constantly choosing the lesser of two evils is still choosing evil.” -Charles Fort, “If only it were all so simple! In Korea, the fox-spirit could take on human form at the age of 100 years of age and the human shape will always be female. Some of these rules are openly stated: "Foxes can take on human form when they reach a certain age" and "foxes are afraid of dogs," for example. And she ate it. It seems that they either have a common origin or are greatly influenced by each other. Come (kitsu) back to sleep (ne) at least." And…, she went away somewhere no one knows. ‘Take this horse,’ said the monk, ‘and use the bottles as I have instructed.’ With that the boy thanked the monk and rode off down the mountain track. Which clearly shows that the fox spirit is considered distinct from normal foxes. Korean traditions are more problematic, as the fox spirit tales we have were largely oral traditions, compiled in a literary form at a much later date, but there is no reason to necessarily assume that cultural overlays imported from China or Japan were the source of the fox-spirit myths, as in all three cases, the oral traditions for the fox are exceedingly ancient. You will pay for these lies.’ And the man was dismissed. RC integrator: why does it convert a triangular wave into a sine wave? Ghoulish Grudges: Do You Deserve to be Haunted? In the end, all the cowherds, swineherds, and stable boys were dismissed and no one from the village would work for the rich man. The Emperor Kinmei reigned over this country. Sexuality is not the most intractable element in power relations, but rather one of those endowed with the greatest instrumentality: useful for the greatest number of maneuvers and capable of serving as a point of support, as a linchpin, for the most varied strategies” (Foucault, 1978, p.103). Native American mythology places the fox firmly in the category of the trickster spirit. All I have to go by is Google, and all that is is a plethora of contradictions. “My dear……, kill, beat that puppy ! The astrologer said “I will go into the mountains and speak for the true emperor. \includegraphics does not find picture if passed as variable. No doubt you fell asleep and had a nightmare. The smell of burning flesh and the screams of the dying filled the senses. :-). New York: Pantheon, 1978. In traditional Chinese medical lore, fox spirits are responsible for Koro, a culture-specific syndrome noted in the Diagnostics and Statistics Manual, also known as Genital Retraction Syndrome. History of Sexuality: Volume 1. The Huli Jing is an archetype for desired behavior, while the Kitsune is the archetype for complex sexual relations in reality. He states that, according to a 16th-century book of records called the Nihon Ryakki, foxes and human beings lived close together in ancient Japan, and he contends that indigenous legends about the creatures arose as a result. There they found the charred bodies of hundreds of dead foxes. As the banquet began, he was toasted by the old man. It is neither good, nor bad, manifesting both examples of extreme kindness, as well as enormous cruelty. Schele de Vere, “Even from the greatest of horrors, irony is seldom absent.” As he entered, he saw that the inside was lavishly decorated and furnished. Most fables tell about how the fox tricks other animals to get food, but no legends or fairy tales have been found telling about the fox attacking humans” (Wallner, 1998, p.31). Although she was scratched and bleeding from the thorns, she fought her way through and began to catch up with the fleeing brother. However, the. Then he accused the astrologer of lying. Daji has also been venerated to some extent as a sort of divine entity of her own accord, and the Huxian is also directly venerated as an individual deity, a bit like a sort of guardian angel or domovoi, that deals in negotiating family relationships, wealth, and prosperity--specifically through its thieving and its attractive qualities and power of negotiation in relationships. This changed in Christian times, where after the fox was seen as a demonic creature. The astrologer became famous because he seemed to know everything and everything he predicted came true. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Women held a remarkably different historical status in Japan, Shinto offering greater elements of women’s empowerment, although this has varied over time due to the important, but not overwhelming influence of imported Confucian doctrines. Konon, setiap kelipatan 500 tahun, ekor sang rubah terbagi menjadi dua. I don't understand why the Nihon Ryoiki was used to cite the claim that fox worship predates Chinese cultural contact, since the book is about, @MarchHo No, it was cited to show that fox worship is ancient in Japan. Is it wise to keep some savings in a cash account to protect against a long term market crash? Does Schoenberg or Glenn Gould have a point? The great king looked down on his enemies and said “I never realized how powerful the imperial government is.” Soon, his fortress was broken and he was captured. It was very long ago. 199 Original ink drawing on hot press paper. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. [2] According to those tales, a fox that lives a thousand years turns into a … For European mythological traditions, “in pre-Christian times the fox was seen as a symbol of gods, for example, as a symbol of the god of vegetation or as a symbol of forest and mountain spirits. What about "Terumah" from fields that his wife inherited from her family? The one exception is in the case of rape. Once there, he could hardly believe his eyes: the house and yard were overgrown with weeds. It's a never ending process of mutation. Namun, tidak seperti Kitsune dan Huli Jing, seekor rubah harus hidup sampai ribuan tahun dulu baru memiliki energi yang cukup untuk menjadi Kumiho. ( Log Out /  The King of Nine Mountains became afraid and asked the astrologer for more advice, but his subordinates could not find the astrologer. In Chinese mythology, it is believed that all things are capable of acquiring human forms, magical powers, and immortality, provided that they receive sufficient energy, in such forms as human breath or essence from the moon and the sun. He said to her, “My dear, …… I love you……, honey…… We… you and I, we are living together, we are going well, having good close friendship……, don’t we ? The fire blazed and sent black smoke upward toward the heavens like a black and evil mushroom. It was his sister stealthily entering. One day, she entreated her husband. Jugs of wine lined the walkways and the scents of good tea wafted from the kitchen. But the fox girl was cunning. A stone kitsune at the Fushimi Inari Taisha, the chief shrine of the Inari god. A beautiful daughter of a general, … As for himself, he believed that he would soon wear the dragon robe. Despite the myths we have about the women of Japan in the West, traditionally, “It is argued that once you go beyond the surface of Japanese society and mingle with Japanese women and men on a personal basis, you realize it is, in fact, women who run men not the other way around. Over time, the Kitsune became closely associated with Inari Okami, depicted as messengers of the Shinto spirit of fertility, agriculture, industry and worldly success. ‘Could you prepare a meal?’ He thought he would escape while she was cooking. She was trying to entice the man with her charm. Mythology & Folklore Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for enthusiasts and scholars of mythology and folklore. (I will discuss the Korean Kumiho and the Chinese Huli Jing as well later on in this article. Who among them are born emperor?” Li began to believe him. After several days, the old man came to him and said “I already moved in, but we’re so busy setting up our new household that we neglected good manners. Problem with mathematical text in xelatex. He too hid behind some hay and witnessed the daughter’s odd conduct: she oiled her hands and arms, thrust one arm into the cow’s belly, pulled out the liver and ate it. 0. It conceives itself as containing more. For instance Ji Xiaolan in his Notes of the Thatched Abode of Close Observations that: Dark and light are different, but foxes are between dark and light. Many of the earliest surviving stories are recorded in the Konjaku Monogatarishū, an 11th-century collection of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese narratives. ‘Morning is wiser than evening. He was silent for a moment, then shouted at his son, ‘you must be madly jealous of you sister to make up such tales. Foucault, Michel. A Huli Jing (Chinese: 狐狸精; pinyin: húli jīng) is a fox spirit from Chinese mythology. He dared not breath until she had returned to the house. In Chinese mythology, it is believed that all things are capable of acquiring human forms, magical powers, and immortality, provided that they receive sufficient energy, in such forms as human breath or essence from the moon and the sun. Tamamo-no-Mae. But the line dividing good and evil cuts through the heart of every human being. Indeed, the Chinese believed that they were entirely made up of feminine energy (yin or jing) … He then styled himself the King of Nine Mountains. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Li worried that no one will follow him. ... whereas the Chinese name for it is huli jing. The association had formed as early as the 8th century and remains extremely strong to this day. The astrologer told Li that the army needed horses. The woman became pregnant and gave a birth to one boy on the day 15 December. One day, he rode on a horse and went out to looking for a beautiful girl. Is it ethical for students to be required to consent to their final course projects being publicly shared? It was only then he realized that the astrologer was the old fox he betrayed (Liao Tsai Chi Yi, “King of the Nine Mountains”, Qing Dynasty). These relations, although clearly hierarchical and subordinating women to men are characterized by a high degree of reciprocity, that is, mutual obligations entailed even in subordination. Legenda siluman rubah ini setara dengan Kitsune di Jepang, dan Huli Jing di China. Japanese fox myths had its origins in Chinese mythology. Where are you going?” The woman answered, “Well, I’m going around looking for a nice husband.” Then, the man asked her, “Could you be my wife? When he was finished, he ignited it. Behind his mansion, he had an empty lot which was going to waste. The astrologer returned a few days later and said “Your great prestige, plus my tongue have convinced all the bandits to follow you.” Li looked outside and saw thousands ready to follow him, so he made the astrologer into his chief advisor. — Seanan McGuire, Discount Armageddon, “Just because you’re paranoid doesn’t mean there isn’t an invisible demon about to eat your face.” One day, this wife came to his husband. After that days, the husband never forgot her. What is infinitely more interesting to me is the variation across time and culture in a given symbol for sexual transgression. Huli jing are akin to European Fairies and can be either good or bad spirits. Landshut, Switzerland: KORA, 1998. He received reinforcement from the imperial government. The feminine. The human head is monstrous.” Then an astrologer who called himself the Old Man of Southern Mountain arrived at the town. I don't think I'm the right person for this job. They got married, lived together. They are no ordinary foxes, but instead the result of centuries or even millenia of training. Description. Split a number in every way possible way within a threshold. A third herdsman spent the night in the cowshed and reported all he had seen. Japanese fol… Li now gave the astrologer the title of Lord Protector. Are Minos and the Minotaur duplication of the same figure? This is not an argument for the social construction of sexuality, rather that when our myths involve erotic components (and it is exceedingly trite, analytically unproductive, and inaccurate to dismiss this by simply observing that sex and violence were more prevalent for ancient man), the eroticism references justifications, explanations, mitigating factors, and consequence of transgression of cultural norms at a given time, and a given place. The fox spirit, in its complex motivations appear to us as an analogue for the complexity of human male-female relations, or as aptly observed in 1789 by Ji Yun in Notebook from the Thatched Cottage of Close Scrutiny “Humans and beasts are different species, but foxes are between humans and beasts. Then tens of thousands of bandits gathered in a nearby mountain. How can you bury your conscience and slaughter us! 'Do these foxes sparkle?' In the middle of the night he heard footsteps and the barn door opened. I can't change any of this." In particular, kitsune are strongly related to the kami Inari, whereas huli jing are not strongly associated with any god in particular. The argument about the Number of tails doesn't matter. Li thought the old man would just try some supernatural tricks on his family, such as throwing bricks at his house, but years passed and nothing happened. Huli Jing vs. Kitsune . She is a genuine man-eater consuming men’s flesh literally and figuratively. He longed for her figure, embraced her in his deep mind. He glanced back and, to his horror, saw her rapidly catching him up, reaching out her hand to grasp his horse’s tail. The fox is a very famous figure in fables and usually is described as greedy, dishonest and tricky. Some tales further describe them as engaging in powerleveling through essence-sucking intercourse with mortal humans à la western succubi or incubi. The nine-tailed fox itself, you will find, is not mentioned in any other story, about fox beings given human guise, in present recollection. Beware the Kitsune, The Shapeshifting Fox of Japanese Folklore. Chronicles of Supernatural Tales of Japan. From Wikipedia: Japanese folklorist Kiyoshi Nozaki argues that the Japanese regarded kitsune positively as early as the 4th century A.D.; the only things imported from China or Korea were the kitsune's negative attributes. -Laini Taylor, “If you want to tell people the truth, make them laugh, otherwise they’ll kill you.” She had remembered his words. But for now, the Kitsune will be our main focus.) No written records in Japan predate culture contact with China, so my point was that this reaches Japanese prehistory. She wore a beautiful long skirt colored pink of dawn. Does a great deal of music remain to be written in C major? At dawn he called his father into the barn and showed him the dead horse. The local officials could not gather enough forces to suppress them. Luckily, we were blessed with a child like this ! The master was so concerned he ordered the cowherd to keep watch all through the night to catch the culprit. What is the relationship between these two mythical creatures? Such similar imagery and stories readily blend together, and synchronicity makes for the telling of a great ongoing ghost tale, readily picked up by any storyteller, regardless of its veracity or true origin. The poor cow rolled over and died. Please ! This required them to first obtain enough power to become more than a fox. Realizing that she had eaten them too, the young man knew he had to escape before she killed him as well but how? “Chinese foxes are earnest scholars, dedicated rakes, devoted lovers, seductresses par excellence, tricksters, poltergeists, drinking companions, karmic avengers, and always, always great moralizers” (http://academia.issendai.com/). How would one justify public funding for non-STEM (or unprofitable) college majors to a non college educated taxpayer? Despite the somewhat ambiguous attitude towards the fox-spirit, the element of parasitism is clearly evident, as the fox spirit must find a human and induce them to fall in love, since only through copulation can it maintain its immortality, and ultimately the fox’s love interest will die from this relationship. The young man concealed himself behind some hay and kept watch. Best to think about it this way: the stories of the nine-tailed fox, the fox-courtesan, or 'huxian', and the trickster 'kitsune', are all variations on what foxes signified to people in different countries, over the ages. I must avenge the cruel deaths of my family.” Then the old man left. The notion of mutual obligation is nascent in the ambivalent attitude towards fox spirits. I'm working on a project so I need to know before I can start! What are the “Treasures of the Dragon Kings”? The dead and the living walk different roads, but foxes are between the dead and the living. It is entirely possible that the 'kitsune' myth came about as a result of immigration and the influx of Buddhism and Taoism, into Japan. The banner of the imperial army filled the mountain valleys around the King’s fortress. The depiction of the fox spirit is highly dependent on the status of women and the regard for sexual power in a specific cultural milieu. The nine tailed fox, additionally, was introduced to Japan both as a general concept as well as a specific ancient fox spirit from India. Magical foxes with long life spans are not something exclusive to eastern cultures, so I would guess that this creature originates from animal dieties and shamanism. How I’ve missed you.’ She went to hug and kiss him, but he drew back in alarm. When she was fifteen years old, the girl went mushrooming on the mountainside and was so engaged in her task that she did not notice the gathering shadows of dusk. Man saw and pled, `` you and I have a child together, I have come long... 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